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"Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects, or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, or the research and development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge.

Steps in conducting research

Research is often conducted using the hourglass model structure of research. The hourglass model starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in on the required information through the method of the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion and results. The major steps in conducting research are

  • Identification of research problem
  • Literature review
  • Specifying the purpose of research
  • Determine specific research questions or hypotheses
  • Data collection
  • Analyzing and interpreting the data
  • Reporting and evaluating research

Generally, research is understood to follow a certain structural process. Though step order may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following steps are usually part of most formal research, both basic and applied:

  • Observations and Formation of the topic: Consists of the subject area of ones interest and following that subject area to conduct subject related research. The subject area should not be randomly chosen since it requires reading a vast amount of literature on the topic to determine the gap in the literature the researcher intends to narrow. A keen interest in the chosen subject area is advisable. The research will have to be justified by linking its importance to already existing knowledge about the topic.

  • Hypothesis: A testable prediction which designates the relationship between two or more variables.

  • Conceptual definition: Description of a concept by relating it to other concepts.

  • Operational definition: Details in regards to defining the variables and how they will be measured/assessed in the study.

  • Gathering of data: Consists of identifying a population and selecting samples, gathering information from and/or about these samples by using specific research instruments. The instruments used for data collection must be valid and reliable.

  • Analysis of data: Involves breaking down the individual pieces of data in order to draw conclusions about it.

  • Data Interpretation: This can be represented through tables, figures and pictures, and then described in words.

  • Test, revising of hypothesis

  • Conclusion, reiteration if necessary
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TSASRC (Dar-Ul Umoor)
Gumbad-e-Shahi road,Ganjam, Srirangapatna Dist.
Mandya, Karnataka, India.
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TSASRC (Dar-Ul Umoor )
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